TB is a chronic disease spread through both unpasteurized milk and respiratory secretions that symptoms are respiratory in nature such as coughing accompanied by weight loss.
Can TB Infect Humans?
Yes. Raw milk that has not been pasteurized retains the possibility of transmitting the disease.
TB is a Reportable Disease.
What Animals Carry TB & How is it Spread?
Bovine TB can infect numerous animals such as deer, cattle, pigs, goats, sheep, dogs and cats although the number of outbreaks for these species is relatively low in the United States.
Infected spit, urine, feces, bedding and contaminated feed and water all pose a risk.
What is the Greatest Risk of TB to Goat Herds?
The greatest risks of infection to goats comes from the introduction of untested animals from an undetected TB-infected goat herd.
TESTING GOATS FOR TB AS WRITTEN IN THE MERCK MANUAL:
"Sheep and goats are quite resistant to M tuberculosis infection. The intradermal skin test is commonly used for diagnosis. The comparative tuberculin skin test conducted in the cervical region using biologically balanced purified protein derivative tuberculins of M bovis and M avium can be used to differentiate sensitization to other mycobacteria. The responses should be observed at 48 and 72 hr for induration and swelling."
Caprine arthritis encephalitis - CAE
CAE is a viral infection that can cause encephalitis in kids, chronic joint disease as well as "hard udders" in adults.
The common ways that this disease may be spread is:
1. The ingestion of virus-infected goat colostrum or milk by nursing kids. This is the most common source of infection.
2. The transmission of CAE through exposure at feeders and waterer, serial use of needles, and equipment contaminated with an infected goats blood.
3. By an infected doe licking their newborn at birth.
Once we decided on a breed of goat, right from the start, we knew the importance of starting and maintaining a herd that is CAE free.
Just knowing that once it is in the herd it is almost impossible to eradicate.
Yearly testing and monitoring to remain CAE free, means that we can bottle feed babies unpasteurized milk thus providing all of the dam's milk's essential nutrients and enzymes which would otherwise be lost.
By allowing the dam's raw, unpasteurized milk to ripen for 24 hours before feeding, helps to build healthy bacteria that is found in raw milk. The extra bacteria results in fewer incidences of scours and kids going off feed in their early months.
We test our goats annually to assure that CAE is not present in our herd.
Buyer's can see our test results and rest assured their kid is from a herd that has been tested and that is CAE free.
Testing a herd yearly for diseases is costly but we believe it is an important responsibility as well as our pledge to the beautiful creatures God has entrusted to our care and which provide us with so much in return.
CL - Caseous Lymphadenitis
CL is a contagious bacterial infection in goats and sheep that can infect even though unbroken skin - it most commonly affects the lymph nodes in the neck.
There is only one way to determine if a goat has CL or not when it has an abscess and that requires a veterinarian to aspirate the swollen area and culture it to see if it comes back positive for CL.
Oftentimes goats will get a lump at an injection site so keeping note of the area of injections or vaccines is advisable so you do not worry or needlessly raise concerns if a lump appears in that area.
If a goat has an abscess, it is a good idea to isolate it.
Once a goat gets CL, it has it forever.
There is a vaccine available but it is only used for herds that have already had outbreaks of the disease and then it is only given to the yet infected goats in the herd. Once a goat is given the vaccine, it will always test positive for the disease which renders any further testing useless.
There is a blood test available to test for CL.
Brucellosis is rare in the United States. Brucellosis is tested for by blood test and/or cultured tissues. Brucellosis is also a reportable disease.
Brucellosis is contagious to humans. Brucellosis is spread by coming into contact with the placenta, fetus fluids, a fetus, and vaginal fluids of an infected animal whether they have aborted or delivered a full-term kid. Infected goats may have mastitis or lameness.
It is imperative that pregnant women, people with weakened immune systems, the elderly and children be particularly careful not to come into any contact with fluids, manure, urine etc of pregnant goats.
Bacteria can be present in milk, blood, urine, seman, placenta, fetal fluids, fetus and vaginal discharges. Brucellosis bacteria can be shed lifelong and the organism can live for several months if not exposed to direct sunlight for several hours. Brucellosis can live for several months on clothing, equipment, manure, hay, water, aborted fetuses, if not exposed to direct sunlight so it is imperative to wear protective clothing and proper cleaning and disposal of exposed materials.
Clinical signs of Brucella Abortus is found in cattle, occasionally in goats, sheep and dogs. Abortions in infected goats usually occur during the fourth month of pregnancy.
There is no practical treatment that has been successful. Long-term antibiotic treatment may eliminate B. ovis infections in valuable stock but fertility may remain poor.
Johne's, which is pronounced "Yoh-nees" disease also known as para-tuberculosis which is the same animal disease, just called by another name. ( Johne's is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis or MAP.)
MAP is most commonly spread by the manure of infected animals.
This disease is a fatal gastrointestinal disease that was originally found in a dairy cow in the late 1800's. This disease affects animals that are ruminants like cows, sheep, goats, bison and antelope.
The Johne's infection spreads from adult goats to kids. The Johne's disease happens when a young animal swallows infected water, milk or feed of infected animals, usually in the first few months of an animal’s life but the animal may remain healthy for a long time. The symptoms of this horrible disease may not show up for months to even years later.
Johne's is contagious. This disease can spread from one animal to another.
There are two clinical signs of Johne’s. They are rapid weight loss and diarrhea. In sheep and goats, diarrhea is less common. Almost all animals are infected in the first months of life but the signs of disease usually do not appear until the animals are adults.
Johne's usually enters a herd when an infected, but otherwise healthy-looking animal is purchased. This infected animal then sheds the Johne's Bacteria onto the property. Johne's bacteria is spread into the pastures, and possibly into water sources which are shared by the new animal's herd-mates.
Young animals much more susceptible to the Johne's infection than adults are.
The young kids, lambs, or calves ingest the organism along with grass or water.
Kids that are bottle-fed with Johne's contaminated milk collected from an infected dam can become infected with the disease. A does milk can also become contaminated from manure-stained teats from disease carrying soils or feces.
In advanced stages of the infection, the bacteria is shed directly into the milk by an infected doe.
Kids may become infected in the womb of a disease-carrying female before they are ever born.
Is there any way to prevent Johne's from your herd?
Do Not Introduce the disease into your herd in the first place.
Do not purchase goats from auctions or sale barns where you do not know any history of the animal. Johne's can be transmitted by any of the previous animals that have traveled through the sale barn or auction.
Purchase only from herds that have been tested and shown to be Johne's free.
Is there a cure for Johne's?
No. So if an animal has Johne's, the humane and best solution is euthanasia.
There are two kinds of ketosis - Gestational & Lactational Ketosis. Pregnancy ketosis is a metabolic condition that can occur at the end of gestation and lactational ketosis which is rare in goats, can occur during early lactation. Ketosis occurs when a doe is unable to maintain normal blood glucose levels during times of high energy demands. The disease in the later part of gestation can be brought on by multiple fetuses, obesity or even an extremely thin doe that does not have the ability to respond to the increased demands of a pregnancy. Without the ability to obtain sufficient amounts of energy, toxic ketones accumulate in the blood which is caused by the fat metabolism processes in the doe.
Signs of ketosis include lack of appetite, depression, sweet smelling breath (Some people can smell a “sweetness of breath”) teeth grinding, star gazing, dull eyes, blindness, tremors, coma & death.
You can check for ketosis with Ketosis test strips that can detect ketone bodies.
Treatment - In order to successfully treat ketosis, the doe's energy density must be increased in the diet. A doe must be fed good quality hay/roughage in the early stages, administer Keto-Gel or Propylene Glycol* two or three times a day and supplement with sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) twice daily or you can treat with an old homemade remedy called Ketosis Magic Milk.
If there is no improvement within 24 hours, it is strongly recommended to contact your veterinarian.
Prevention and or control of Ketosis first and foremost is to control and maintain the proper weight of the doe and prevent obesity. In the last 6 weeks of pregnancy, increase the does energy intake. Does need to exercise at least 2 or 3 hours per day.
Monitoring and early detection is key.
* NOTE: Propylene Glycol may be toxic at high or repeated dosing - Take care when using. It is recommended to limit dosing to 60cc/dose for a dam that is eating and discontinue if the doe stops eating. The "recommended" dosing did not specify the weight or size of the doe so consultation with a veterinarian is always recommended.